Bangladesh is an agricultural country. Agriculture is very important in our life. Agriculture produces and supplies almost all inputs of basic needs of our everyday life. Moreover agriculture supplies money, necessary for purchasing other commodities and services. Agriculture plays a vital role in our life to fulfill the requirements of food, clothes, shelter and health. The areas of agriculture cover crops, animals and birds, fisheries and forestry.
• explain areas and sectors of agriculture in Bangladesh.
• identify agriculture-related information and service providing sources. Agriculture is old, yet modern and a very much honourable profession. Because through this, the basic needs of human beings are fulfilled. Basic needs of human beings mean food, clothes, shelter, health and education. So the agricultural sector is conveniently wide. Agriculture related subjects are crop production, livestock rearing, poultry rearing, fish culture and afforestation. Agriculture supplies us food. Rice, wheat, potato, maize, vegetables, fruits are foods that give us nutrition. We get fibers for cloth from jute, cotton and silk. We get house making materials and furniture from wood, bamboo, straw, thatching grass, big leaves etc. Bamboo, straw, cowdung, branches of trees, etc. are used as firewood. We get paper from wood, sugarcane trash, bamboo etc. We get medicine from amloki, haritaki, triphala, patharchata leaves and vasoka. We also get milk, meat, egg, and nutrition from domestic animals and birds. These are all agriculture. Farmers produce food and supply clothing and building materials. The overall development of agro-based Bangladesh depends on agriculture. So there will be economic development, if we can ensure development in agriculture.
This basic needs are fulfilled through different types of crop production, animal and bird rearing, fish culture and afforestation. Different types of crops mean field crops, pulses and horticultural crops. Livestock rearing means rearing cattle in healthy condition, poultry rearing and cattle feed production. Fish culture means different kinds of fish cultivation in closed and open water. And afforestation means natural afforestation, social afforestation and agriculture afforestation.
Task : Identify the areas of agricultural sector on the basis of the daily food of a family.
Crop production, Fisheries, Animals, Birds and Afforestation We discussed the areas of agriculture in the last lesson. As a result, now we will discuss in details, the importance of crop production, fisheries, animals, birds and afforestation. a) Crop production : Crop production is the principal matter of agricultural activities. People’s livelihood i.e. fulfilling their need of food and clothing is closely related to crop production. On the basis of cultivation, crops are mainly classified into two groups-field crops and horticultural crops.
Figure: A basket of fruits (1) Field crops: Paddy, wheat, maize, jute, cotton, etc. are field crops. Paddy, wheat and maize are cereals. Cereals are staple food for human beings. Cereals provide carbohydrate to our body. Pulse crops like lentil, mung bean, black gram, etc. supply protein. Sesame, mustard, tishi, sunflower, etc. fall under oil crops. These crops provide fat to our body. Jute is a fibre crop. It is our main crop. Bevarages include tea, coffee, etc. (ii) Horticultural crops : Farmers produce horticultural crops all the year round. Different kinds of vegetables, fruits, flowers, spices, etc. are related to horticultural crops. Bottle-gourd, bean, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, potato, etc. are winter vegetables. Ash gourd, snake gourd, aroids, pointed gourd, bitter gourd, etc. are vegetables of the summer or rainy seasons. Mango, jack fruit, litchi, blackberry, etc. are seasonal fruits. Papaya, coconut, banana, etc. are found all the year round. We receive vitamins and mineral from vegetables and fruits. So, it can be said that we receive almost all nutrients we