Flood is a water-created natural calamity. Four kinds of floods are seen in Bangladesh, such as:

  1. Flash or sudden flood : This sort of flood is seen in the northern and the east ern hilly basins in Bangladesh. This flood is caused suddenly in the months of April and May for the border hilly swell. The water of this flood lasts from hours to several days. Crop damage often happens for sudden floods when paddy ripens in the marshy or haor areas. 2. Flood caused by rain : This flood is seen when the low-lying areas of the country are submerged due to heavy downpour. This sort of flood is seen in the northern, western and mid areas of the country. 3. River-borne flood : When heavy rainfall continues in the upstream regions of Bangladesh, the water flows to the Bay of Bengal from all over the country. As our major rivers are filled with silt, they fail to transport the huge amount of water quickly. As a result, flood occurs in the central portions namely the basins of the Padma, the Meghna and the Brahmaputra. Devastating floods occurred in these areas in the years of 1988, 1998 and 2004. 4. Flood caused by coastal storms and cyclones : Cyclone occurs when a violent depression is created in the Bay of Bengal. A wind-storm is accompanied with a tidal surge in coastal areas. The salty water of the sea rushes towards coastal areas at a great speed standing high and causes floods. So crops, fisheries, livestock, houses are damaged with the loss of human lives. For example, the last Sidor and the Aila caused a havoc in the southern areas of Barisal and Khulna divisions.
  2. Drought: If rainfall does not occur continuously for 20 days or more than that in dry season, this condition is drought. Due to drought there is deficiency of moisture in the soil for crops. So that crop yield may decrease 15 to 90%. The most drought prone areas in Bangladesh are Rajshahi, Chapainawabgonj, Naogon, Dinajpur, Bogra, Kushtia and Jessore.
    Task : Identify flood, tidal surge and high drought prone areas in the map of Bangladesh.
    • describe the characteristics and economic importance of horticultural crops.
    • describe the characteristics and economic importance of field crops.
    • describe the production method of vegetables.
    • describe the characteristics and economic importance of cultivable fishes.
    • describe the method of fish cultivation or pisciculture (Pangas.)
    • describe the characteristics and economic importance of domestic animals
    and birds.
    • describe the method of bird rearing.
    • grow agricultural products (vegetables) in homestead.
    • be interested in growing agricultural products. Introduction and economic importance of horticultural crops
    The plants that man grows for his necessity are called crops. Crops are divided into two major categories such as horticultural crops and field crops. The word ‘horticulture’ means “garden’. We make garden of different crops such as fruits, flowers, vegetables, etc. in high lands around our homestead. The crops we grow in a garden are called horticultural crops. At present horticultural crops are commercially grown in the fields. Horticultural crops are divided into four types, such as:
  3. Fruits: Mango, jack-fruit, litchi, guava, jujube, wood apple, etc. 2. Vegetables: Potato, brinjal, tomato, bean, bottle gourd, spinach, etc. 3. Species: Pepper, onion, ginger, turmeric, etc. 4. Flowers: Marigold, china rose, togor, beli, cosmos, dahlia, etc.
    Task: Make a list of fruits, vegetables and flowers which are grown in Bangladesh.
    Horticultural crops have some special characteristics that make them separate from other crops. Horticultural crops can be cultivated intensively on small scale. That is to say, the cultivation of these crops does require more capital and
    labour in a unit-area. These are cultivated to meet man’s food and medicine ng requirement and to satisfy his thirst for beauty. The horticultural crops cultivated
    for food have more vitamins and minerals. These are usually eaten fresh and
    most of them are juicy and perishable. The external appearance and taste of these crops are very important to men. We ourselves can understand the importance of horticultural crops after knowing their characteristics. More profit from less land is the main economic characteristic of horticultural crops. The importance of horticultural crops can be easily understood from the following subjects.
  4. Nutrient and Importance in families : According to World Health
    Organization, a man should eat daily 450 gm of vegetables and fruits. The demand of food and nutrition of a family can be met by cultivating horticultural crops around the homestead. Again the income of a family can be increased by selling excess crops. On the other hand, valuable wood is obtained from the fruit-bearing trees of mango, blackberry, jack-fruit, etc. This wood is used in building houses and making furniture. A huge amount of money is got by selling wood. Moreover a lot of firewood is collected by pruning off the branches of fruit-bearing and ornamental plants. This firewood is used in the cooking of a family, As a result, money is saved in energy sector. Economic Importance: Garden crops have a tremendous demand at home and abroad. We can earn more from vegetables, fruits, flowers by applying modem methods of cultivation. On the other hand, intensive nursing is needed in the cultivation of horticultural crops. More capital, labour and technology are required at every level from production to marketing. So opportunities of employment are created all round the year. As a result, unemployment problem is solved.

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